Program & Enrichment References

The Culture Reframed Parents Program has been developed by a team of expert contributors, relying on professional experience, sound theory and peer-reviewed research. Research directly referred to within modules is listed below.

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Parents of Tweens Research

Click through to find more research relating to the impacts of pornography.

Course 1: Parents of Tweens

Module 1

Slide 5: Viewing porn on mobile phones

Common Sense Media. (2018). SOCIAL MEDIA, SOCIAL LIFE: Teens Reveal Their Experiences. Available from URL: https://www.commonsensemedia.org/research/social-media-social-life-2018

Lim, M.S.C., Agius, P.A., Carrotte, E.R., Vella, A.M. and Hellard, M.E. (2017), Young Australians’ use of pornography and associations with sexual risk behaviours. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 41: 438–443. doi:10.1111/1753-6405.12678 Available from URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1753-6405.12678/full 

Module 2

Slide 9: Continuous Exposure To Porn

Donevan, M., & Mattebo, M. (2017). The Relationship between Frequent Pornography Consumption, Behaviors, and Sexual Preoccupancy among Male Adolescents in Sweden. Sexual & Reproductive Healthcare. DOI: 10.1016/j.srhc.2017.03.002

Slide 10: Impact on Younger Children
Skau, B, (2007) Who Has Seen What When? Pornography’s Contribution to the Social Construction of Sexuality During Childhood and Adolescence. Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive). 1044. Available from URL: http://scholars.wlu.ca/etd/1044

Module 3

Slide 2: Unwanted exposure

Mitchell, K.J., Wolak, J., and Finkelhor, D. (2007). Trends in Youth Reports of Sexual Solicitations, Harassment and Unwanted Exposure to Pornography on the Internet. Journal of Adolescent Health, 40(2): 116–126.

Slide 8: Intersex statistics

Blackless, M., Charuvastra, A., Derryck, A., Fausto-Sterling, A., Lauzanne, K., and Lee, E. (2000), How sexually dimorphic are we? Review and synthesis. Am. J. Hum. Biol., 12: 151–166. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1520-6300(200003/04)12:2<151: AID-AJHB1>3.0.CO;2-F

Module 4

Slide 6: Child on child sexual abuse

Barnardo’s (2017) Police figures reveal rise of almost 80% in reports of child-on-child sex offences (online). February 3, 2017. Available from URL: https://www.barnardos.org.uk/news/Police_figures_reveal_rise_of_almost_80_in_reports_of_child-on-child_sex_offences/latest-news.htm?ref=121581

Ybarra, M.L. & Thompson, R.E. (2017) Predicting the Emergence of Sexual Violence in Adolescence. Prevention Science Journal pp.1-13. DOI: 10.1007/s11121-017-0810-4

Slide 21: Consent

Blue Seat Studios. Consent – It’s as simple as tea. YouTube: https://youtu.be/fGoWLWS4-kU

Module 5

Slide 8: Phone Use and Sleep Disruption

Scutti, S. Your smartphone may be hurting your sleep. CNN (online) June 23, 2017. Available from URL: https://edition.cnn.com/2016/11/09/health/smartphones-harm-sleep/index.html

Changa, A-M., Aeschbacha, D., Duffy, J.F. & Czeislera, C.A. (2015) Evening use of light-emitting eReaders negatively affects sleep, circadian timing, and next-morning alertness. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 112 (4) pp 1232-1237. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1418490112

Slide 9: What happens to your brain and body when you check your smartphone before bed

Siegel, D., How Smart Phones Affect Your Sleep. YouTube: https://youtu.be/_1V0rDSTC9I

Slide 14: Technology Reshaping Communication

Kamenetz, A. Screen Addiction Among Teens: Is There Such A Thing? WSKG (online) February 5, 2018. Available from URL: https://wskg.org/npr_story_post/screen-addiction-among-teens-is-there-such-a-thing/

Slide 15: Technology Reshaping Communication

Twenge, J.M., Have Smartphones Destroyed a Generation? The Atlantic (online) September 2017 Issue. Available from URL: https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2017/09/has-the-smartphone-destroyed-a-generation/534198/

Slide 18: Balance Technology

Twenge, J.M. With teen mental health deteriorating over five years, there’s a likely culprit. The Conversation (online) November 15, 2017. Available from URL: https://theconversation.com/with-teen-mental-health-deteriorating-over-five-years-theres-a-likely-culprit-86996

Twenge, J.M., Joiner, T.E., Rogers, M.L., Martin, G.N. (2017) Increases in Depressive Symptoms, Suicide-Related Outcomes, and Suicide Rates Among U.S. Adolescents After 2010 and Links to Increased New Media Screen Time. Clinical Psychological Science, Vol 6, Issue 1, pp. 3 – 17. November 14, 2017. DOI: 10.1177/2167702617723376

Module 7

Slide 3: Intentional – Accidental

Martellozzo, E., Monaghan, A., Adler, J.R., Davidson, J., Leyva, R., and Horvath, M.A.H. Revised May, 2017. “…I wasn’t sure it was normal to watch it…” A quantitative and qualitative examination of the impact of online pornography on the values, attitudes, beliefs and behaviours of children and young people. Available from URL: https://www.nspcc.org.uk/services-and-resources/research-and-resources/2016/i-wasnt-sure-it-was-normal-to-watch-it/

Slide 4: High Rates of Unintentional Exposure

Singh, N. Talk to Your Kids About Porn. The Atlantic (online) August 9, 2018. Available from URL: https://www.theatlantic.com/ideas/archive/2018/08/talking-to-kids-about-porn/568744/

Slide 5: Accessing Pornography

Net Nanny. n.d. Tricks Pornographers Play. Available from URL: https://www.netnanny.com/learn-center/article/108/

Slide 14: Ages of viewing pornography

Martellozzo, E., Monaghan, A., Adler, J.R., Davidson, J., Leyva, R., and Horvath, M.A.H. Revised May, 2017. “…I wasn’t sure it was normal to watch it…” A quantitative and qualitative examination of the impact of online pornography on the values, attitudes, beliefs and behaviours of children and young people. Available from URL: https://www.nspcc.org.uk/services-and-resources/research-and-resources/2016/i-wasnt-sure-it-was-normal-to-watch-it/

Slide 15: Ages of viewing pornography

Dima, B. (2013). Bitdefender Case Study: Kids & Online Threats.

Slide 16: Ages of viewing pornography

Common Sense Media (2017) The Common Sense Census: Media use by kids age zero to eight. Available from URL: https://www.commonsensemedia.org/sites/default/files/uploads/research/csm_zerotoeight_fullreport_release_2.pdf

Slide 17: Trauma viewing pornography

Skau, B, (2007) Who Has Seen What When? Pornography’s Contribution to the Social Construction of Sexuality During Childhood and Adolescence. Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive). 1044. Available from URL http://scholars.wlu.ca/etd/1044

Slide 18: Childhood Trauma

Veer, I.M., Oei, N.Y., van Buchem, M.A., Spinhoven, P., Elzinga, B.M., Rombouts, S.A. (2015). Evidence for smaller right amygdala volumes in posttraumatic stress disorder following childhood trauma. Journal of Psychiatry Research. 2015 Sep 30;233(3):436-42. DOI: 10.1016/j.pscychresns.2015.07.016

Slide 23: Exposure to Harmful Content

Terminology Guidelines for the Protection of Children from Sexual Exploitation and Sexual Abuse. 2016. Interagency Working Group on Sexual Exploitation of Children. Luxembourg. Available from URL: http://luxembourgguidelines.org/english-version/

Slide 25: Normalization

Definition sourced from Cordelia Anderson: http://www.cordeliaanderson.com/

Slide 28: More males watch porn than females

Sabina, C., Wolak, J., & Finkelhor D. (2008) The nature and dynamics of internet pornography exposure for youth; CyberPsychology & Behavior 11(6):691-3. doi: 10.1089/cpb.2007.0179.

Slide 29: More males watch porn than females

Lim, M.S.C.; Agius, P.A.; Carrotte, E.R.; Vella, A.M.; Hellard, M.E.; (2017). Young Australians’ use of pornography and associations with sexual risk behaviours; Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health; 41(4): 438- 443. DOI: 10.1111/1753-6405.12678

Slide 30: More males watch porn than females

Donevan, M., & Mattebo, M. (2017). The Relationship between Frequent Pornography Consumption, Behaviors, and Sexual Preoccupancy among Male Adolescents in Sweden, Sexual & Reproductive Healthcare. (2017), DOI: 10.1016/j.srhc.2017.03.002

Pizzol, D., Bertoldo, A., & Foresta, C. (2016). Adolescents and web porn: A new era of sexuality. International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health, 28(2), 169-173. DOI: 10.1515/ijamh-2015-0003

Module 9

Slide 7: Parenting Styles

Parenting for Brain. 4 Parenting Styles – Characteristics and Effects. Retrieved September 2017 from URL: https://www.parentingforbrain.com/4-baumrind-parenting-styles/ 

Slide 13: Parenting Support listed on our Resource Links page.

Talking about Sex – Anya Manes parent educator and coach: http://talkingaboutsex.com/

RX for Parenting – Dana Entin parent educator and consultant: https://danaentin.com/

Sex Ed Rescue – Cath Hakanson sex educator, nurse, researcher and counsellor: https://sexedrescue.com/

Aha Parenting – Laura Markham: http://www.ahaparenting.com/

Triple P Positive Parenting Programs: http://www.triplep-parenting.net.au/

Positive Parenting Ally – Understanding Parenting Styles:  https://www.positive-parenting-ally.com/3-parenting-styles.html

Parenting for Brain – 4 Parenting Styles: https://www.parentingforbrain.com/4-baumrind-parenting-styles/

Parents of Teens Research

Click through to find more research relating to the impacts of pornography.

Course 2: Parents of Teens

Module 1

Slide 10: Parents Are The Number One Influencer

Pickhardt, C. Surviving Your Child’s Adolescence: How to Understand, and Even Enjoy, the Rocky Road to Independence. Publisher: Jossey-Bass; 1st edition: February 11, 2013.

Slide 13: Parenting Styles

Boniel-Nissim, M., Efrati, Y. & Dolev-Cohen, M. (2019). Parental Mediation Regarding Children’s Pornography Exposure: The Role of Parenting Style, Protection Motivation and Gender. The Journal of Sex Research, 00(00), 1–10, 2019. DOI: 10.1080/00224499.2019.1590795

Slide 14: Parenting Styles

Image retrieved and modified from: https://sustainingcommunity.files.wordpress.com/2015/02/parenting-style-v-21.jpg

Module 2

Slide 27: Brain Development: Stages of Maturation
Gogtay, N., Giedd, J.N., Lusk, L., Hayashi, K.M., Greenstein, D., Vaituzis, A.C.,

Nugent III, T.F., Herman, D.H., Clasen, L.S., Toga, A.W., Rapoport, J.L, and Thompson, P.M. (2004). Dynamic mapping of human cortical development during childhood through early adulthood. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 101. 8174-9. 10.1073/pnas.0402680101. Available from URL: http://users.loni.ucla.edu/~thompson/DEVEL/PNASDevel04.pdf

Bibliography and further reading

Module 3

Slide 7: Types of Relationships

Vernacchio, A. T. (2014). For Goodness Sex: Changing the Way We Talk to Teens about Sexuality, Values, and Health. HarperCollins Publishers, New York.

Slide 18: Porn Undermines Healthy Relationships

Dines, G. (2010). Pornland: How porn has hijacked our sexuality. Beacon Press, Boston, MA.

Slide 19: Porn Undermines Healthy Relationships

Maltz, W. (1995). The Maltz Hierarchy of Sexual Interaction. Healthy Sex. Available from URL: https://healthysex.com/self-help-articles/the-maltz-hierarchy-of-sexual-interaction/

Slide 22: Porn Undermines Healthy Relationships

Princip, N., Magnoni, P., Grimoldi, L., Carnevali, D., Cavazzana, L., Pellai, A. (2019). Consumption of sexually explicit internet material and its effects on minors’ health: Latest evidence from the literature. Minerva Pediatrica 2019 Feb 13. DOI: 10.23736/S0026-4946.19.05367-2

Binford, W. (2018). Viewing pornography through a children’s rights lens, Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity, 25:4, 415-444, DOI: 10.1080/10720162.2019.1578311

Sun, C., Bridges, A., Johnson, J.A., Ezzell, M.B. (2016). Pornography and the Male Sexual Script: An Analysis of Consumption and Sexual Relations. Arch Sex Behav. 2016 May;45(4):983-94. DOI: 10.1007/s10508-014-0391-2.

Slide 26: Porn and Mental Health

Owens, E.W., Behun, R.J., Manning, J.C & Reid, R.C. (2012). The Impact of Internet Pornography on Adolescents: A Review of the Research, Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity: The Journal of Treatment & Prevention, 19:1-2, 99-122. DOI: 10.1080/10720162.2012.660431

Slide 27: Porn and Mental Health

Lamb, S. & Koven, J. with assistance from University of Massachusetts Lamb Research Group: Brown, C.  Dusseault, M., Forlizzi, C. & White, L. (2019) The Sexualization of Girls: An Update. Prepared for Culture Reframed. Available from URL: https://www.culturereframed.org/the-sexualization-of-girls/

Module 4

Slide 4: Dominant Media Messages

Fona International. (2019). Consumer Insight: Purchase Power of Today’s Teens. Available from URL: https://www.fona.com/purchase-power-of-todays-teens/

Slide 7: Impacts of Media Messages

Ward, L.M. (2016) Media and Sexualization: State of Empirical Research, 1995–2015, The Journal of Sex Research, 53:4-5, 560-577, DOI: 10.1080/00224499.2016.1142496

Slide 9: Impacts of Media Messages

Collins Dictionary: fitspiration. Available from URL: https://www.collinsdictionary.com/submission/17735/fitspiration

Collins Dictionary: thinspiration. Available from URL: https://www.collinsdictionary.com/submission/13465/Thinspiration

Slide 10: Impacts of Media Messages

Tiggemann, M., Zaccardo, M. (2015). “Exercise to be fit, not skinny”: The effect of fitspiration imagery on women’s body image. Volume 15, September 2015, Pages 61-67. DOI: 10.1016/j.bodyim.2015.06.003

Slide 11: Impacts of Media Messages 

Common Sense Media (2015). Landmark Report: U.S. Teens Use an Average of Nine Hours of Media Per Day, Tweens Use Six Hours. Available from URL: https://www.commonsensemedia.org/about-us/news/press-releases/landmark-report-us-teens-use-an-average-of-nine-hours-of-media-per-day

Walker, C.E., Krumhuber, E.G., Dayan, S., & Furnham, A. (2019). Effects of social media use on desire for cosmetic surgery among young women. Journal of Current Psychology, pp 1-10; DOI: 10.1007/s12144-019-00282-1

Slide 28: Pornography and Body Image

Kvalem, I. L., Træen, B., Lewin, B., & Štulhofer, A. (2014). Self-perceived effects of Internet pornography use, genital appearance satisfaction, and sexual self-esteem among young Scandinavian adults. Cyberpsychology: Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace, 8(4).

Slide 37: Pornography and Body Image

Corder, R. March 5, 2019. Mariner Watches apologizes for offensive and distasteful advertising. Watch Pro. Available from URL: https://usa.watchpro.com/mariner-watches-apologizes-for-offensive-and-distasteful-advertising

Module 5

Slide 15: Accessibility & Anonymity

Sun, C., Bridges, A., Johnson, J.A., & Ezzell, M.B. (2016). Pornography and the Male Sexual Script: An Analysis of Consumption and Sexual Relations. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 45(4): 983–994. DOI: 10.1007/s10508-014-0391-2

Dawson, K., Gabhainn, S. C., & MacNeela, P. (2019) Dissatisfaction with school sex education is not associated with using pornography for sexual information. Porn Studies, 6(2): 245-257. DOI: 10.1080/23268743.2018.1525307

Slide 16: Active Consumption

American Psychological Association. Age of First Exposure to Pornography Shapes Men’s Attitudes Toward Women. (Web page, August 3, 2017). Available from URL: https://www.apa.org/news/press/releases/2017/08/pornography-exposure

Sun, C., Bridges, A., Johnson, J.A., & Ezzell, M.B. (2016). Pornography and the Male Sexual Script: An Analysis of Consumption and Sexual Relations. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 45(4):983-94. DOI: 10.1007/s10508-014-0391-2

Slide 17: Pornography Matters

Bleakley, A., Hennessy, M., & Fishbein, M. (2011) A Model of Adolescents’ Seeking of Sexual Content in Their Media Choices, The Journal of Sex Research, 48(4): 309-315. DOI: 10.1080/00224499.2010.497985

Slide 19: Pornography Matters

Rowell Huesmann, L. (1986). Psychological Processes Promoting the Relation Between Exposure to Media Violence and Aggressive Behavior by the Viewer. Journal of Social Issues, 42(3): 125-39. ERIC Number: EJ355099

Slide 20: The Model of Script Sources

Leonhardt, N.D., Spencer, T.J., Butler, M.H., Theobald, A.C. (2019). An Organizational Framework for Sexual Media’s Influence on Short‑Term Versus Long‑Term Sexual Quality. Archives of Sexual Behavior. 48: 2233. DOI: 10.1007/s10508-018-1209-4

Slide 31: What About Young Women

Lamb, S., Koven, J.,  Brown, C., Dusseault, M., Forlizzi, C., & and White, L. (2019). The Sexualization of Girls: An Update. Prepared for Culture Reframed. Available from URL: https://www.culturereframed.org/the-sexualization-of-girls/

Slide 32: What About Young Women

Johnson, J.A., Ezzell, M.B., Bridges, A.J., & Sun, C.F. (2019). Pornography and Heterosexual Women’s Intimate Experiences with a Partner. Journal of Women’s Health. Volume: 28 Issue 9. DOI: 10.1089/jwh.2018.7006 Available from URL: https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/abs/10.1089/jwh.2018.7006

Module 6

Slide 2: The Pleasure Response

Mitchell, K.R., Wellings, K.A., & Graham, C. (2014) How Do Men and Women Define Sexual Desire and Sexual Arousal?, Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy, 40:1, 17-32, DOI: 10.1080/0092623X.2012.697536

Slide 5: Cultural Context

Lindquist, S.C.M. (2018). Confronting Power and Violence in the Renaissance Nude. Available from URL: http://blogs.getty.edu/iris/confronting-power-and-violence-in-the-renaissance-nude/ 

Slide 7: Porn Shaping Arousal Pathways

Sloviaková, K. (2019). Excessive use of online pornography and its impact on quality of life: qualitative research. Univerzita Karlova, 1. lékařská fakulta. Available from URL: https://dspace.cuni.cz/handle/20.500.11956/109176

Brown, J. A. & Wisco, J. J. (2019) The components of the adolescent brain and its unique sensitivity to sexually explicit material. Journal of Adolescence. 2019 Apr;72:10-13. DOI: 10.1016/j.adolescence.2019.01.006

Slide 8: Porn Shaping Arousal Pathways

Park, B. Y., Wilson, G., Berger, J., Christman, M., Reina, B., Bishop, F., Klam, W. P., & Doan, A. P. (2016). Is Internet Pornography Causing Sexual Dysfunctions? A Review with Clinical Reports. Behavioral sciences (Basel, Switzerland), 6(3), 17. DOI:10.3390/bs6030017

Slide 9: Porn Shaping Arousal Pathways

Hamdija, B. (2019). Pornography-Induced Erectile Dysfunction Among Young Men. Dignity: A Journal on Sexual Exploitation and Violence: Vol. 4: Iss. 1, Article 5. DOI: 10.23860/dignity.2019.04.01.05

Slide 13: Most Common Acts Shown in Mainstream Porn

Bridges, A.J., Wosnitzer, R., Scharrer, E., Sun, C., & Liberman, R. (2010). Aggression and sexual behavior in best-selling pornography videos: a content analysis update. Violence Against Women. 2010 Oct;16(10):1065-85. DOI: 10.1177/1077801210382866.

Slide 15: Violence Against Women

Rothman, E. F., Kaczmarsky, C., Burke, N., Jansen, E., & Baughman, A. (2015). “Without Porn… I Wouldn’t Know Half the Things I Know Now”: A Qualitative Study of Pornography Use Among a Sample of Urban, Low-Income, Black and Hispanic Youth. The Journal of Sex Research, 52(7), 736-746.

Slide 17: What Teens Are Learning

Elias, A. interviewed for The Porn Factor. (Video, Dec 10, 2015). Available from URL: https://youtu.be/dnYiHufVJEk

Slide 19: What Teens Are Learning

Wood, P. 8 July, 2019. Australia’s porn problem. (News Article). Available from URL: https://www.abc.net.au/news/2019-01-16/australias-porn-problem/10668940 

Slide 23: Porn Shaping Behaviors

Marston, C. & Lewis, R. Anal heterosex among young people and implications for health promotion: a qualitative study in the UK. BMJ Open 2014;4:e004996. DOI:10.1136/bmjopen-2014-004996

Gonsalves, V. M., Hodges, H., & Scalora, M. J. (2015) Exploring the Use of Online Sexually Explicit Material: What Is the Relationship to Sexual Coercion? Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity, 22:3, 207-221, DOI: 10.1080/10720162.2015.1039150

Marshall, E. A., Miller, H. A., & Bouffard, J. A. (2018). Bridging the Theoretical Gap: Using Sexual Script Theory to Explain the Relationship Between Pornography Use and Sexual Coercion. Journal of Interpersonal Violence. DOI: 10.1177/0886260518795170

Sun, C., Ezzell, M. B., & Kendall, O. (2017). Naked Aggression: The Meaning and Practice of Ejaculation on a Woman’s Face. Violence Against Women, 23(14), 1710–1729. DOI: 10.1177/1077801216666723

Slide 25: Female Pleasure

Hirst, J. (2012). It’s got to be about enjoying yourself: young people, sexual pleasure, and sex and relationships education. Sex Education: sexuality, society and learning, 13 (4), 423-436. DOI: 10.1080/14681811.2012.747433

Beasley, C. (2008). The challenge of pleasure: Re-imagining sexuality and sexual health, Health Sociology Review, 17:2, 151-163, DOI: 10.5172/hesr.451.17.2.151

Slide 27: Porn Shaping Behaviors

Stack, L. Sexually Transmitted Disease Cases Rise to Record High, C.D.C. Says. New York Times (News Article, October 8, 2019) Available from URL: https://www.nytimes.com/2019/10/08/health/cdc-std-study.html

Slide 28: Healthy Communication

Vernacchio, A., & Foster, B. L. (2014). For goodness sex: changing the way we talk to teens about sexuality, values, and health. First Edition. HarperCollins, NY.

Slide 29: Healthy Communication

Screwball! Film (2017). TrueTube. Available from URL: https://www.truetube.co.uk/film/screwball Also available from URL: https://youtu.be/OC7xv3wOauk

Module 7

Slide 5: Sexting

Salter, Michael (2013). “Beyond criminalisation and responsibilisation: sexting, gender and young people”. Sydney Law School. 24: 310–315. Available from URL: http://handle.uws.edu.au:8081/1959.7/527558

Slide 11: Sexting: Emotional Consequences

Temple, J.R., Strasburger, V.C, Zimmerman, H, Madigan, S (2019) Sexting in youth: cause for concern? The Lancet, Child & Adolescent Health, Vol 3, Issue 8, 520-521

Döring, N. (2014). Consensual sexting among adolescents: Risk prevention through abstinence education or safer sexting? Cyberpsychology: Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace, 8(1), article 9. Available from URL: https://cyberpsychology.eu/article/view/4303/3352  

Slide 12: Sexting: Risk Factors

Mori, C., Temple, J. R., Browne, D., & Madigan, S. (2019). Association of Sexting With Sexual Behaviors and Mental Health Among Adolescents: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. JAMA Pediatrics,173(8):770-779. DOI: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2019.1658

Slide 18: All Three Sexting Scenarios

Madigan, S., Ly, A., Rash, C. L., Van Ouytsel, J., & Temple, J. R. (2018). Prevalence of Multiple Forms of Sexting Behavior Among Youth: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. JAMA Pediatr. 2018;172(4):327-335. DOI: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2017.5314

Slide 23: Sexting: Pressure For Young Women

Thomas, S.E. (2018). What Should I Do?: Young Women’s Reported Dilemmas with Nude Photographs. Sexuality Research and Social Policy 15:192–207. DOI: 10.1007/s13178-017-0310-0 

Choia, HJ., Van Ouytsel, J., & Temple, J. R. (2016). Association between sexting and sexual coercion among female adolescents. Journal of Adolescence, 53, 164-168. DOI: 10.1016/j.adolescence.2016.10.005

Slide 26: Sexting Weaponized

Noll J. G., Shenk C.E., Barnes C .E., & Putnam F. W. (2009). Childhood abuse, avatar choices, and other risk factors associated with internet initiated victimization of adolescent girls. Pediatrics, 123, 1078-1083.

Maas, M. K., Bray, B. C., & Noll, J. G. (2019). Online sexual experiences predict subsequent sexual health and victimization outcomes among female adolescents: A latent class analysis. Journal of Youth & Adolescence, 48, 837-849.

Slide 33: Checklist of Strategies to deal with Online Digital Harassment

U.S. Department of Education. Title IX and Sex Discrimination. Last Modified: 01/10/2020. Available from URL: https://www2.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ocr/docs/tix_dis.html

Slide 34: Checklist of Strategies to deal with Online Digital Harassment

eSafety Commissioner. Image-based abuse. (Website, retrieved 3 December, 2019). Available from URL: https://www.esafety.gov.au/key-issues/image-based-abuse

Module 8

Slide 8: Consent In Porn Culture

Vogels, E. A., O’Sullivan, L. F. (2018) The Relationship Among Online Sexually Explicit Material Exposure to, Desire for, and Participation in Rough Sex. Archives of Sex Behavior. DOI: 10.1007/s10508-018-1290-8

Slide 9: The Sexual Behavior Continuum

Anderson, C. (n.d.) The Sexual Behavior Continuum Lesson. Available from URL: http://www.cordeliaanderson.com/SexualBehaviorContinuum

Slide 17: Fear Of Reporting

Fisher, B. S., Daigle, L. E., Cullen, F. T., & Turner, M. G. (2003). Reporting sexual victimization to the police and others: Results from a national-level study of college women. Criminal justice and behavior, 30(1), 6-38.

Lisak, D., Gardinier, L., Nicksa, S. C., & Cote, A. M. (2010). False allegations of sexual assault: An analysis of ten years of reported cases. Violence Against Women, 16(12), 1318-1334.

Slide 20: Victim Blaming

Rennison, C. M. (2002). Rape and sexual assault: Reporting to police and medical attention, 1992-2000 [NCJ 194530]. Retrieved from the U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics: https://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/rsarp00.pdf 

Maas, M. (2014). Why Victim Blaming Comes So Naturally to Us All.  (Blog Article, November 24, 2014). Available from URL: http://www.meganmaas.com/blog/victim-blaming-feels-so-good

Slide 25: Supporting Victims

Walker, H. E., Freud, J. S., Ellis, R. A., Fraine, S. M., & Wilson, L. C. (2019). The Prevalence of Sexual Revictimization: A Meta-Analytic Review. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 20(1), 67–80. DOI: 10.1177/1524838017692364

Slide 27: Teenage Dating Violence

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Violence Prevention. Intimate Partner Violence. Preventing Teen Dating Violence. Page last reviewed: March 12, 2019. Available from URL: https://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/intimatepartnerviolence/teendatingviolence/fastfact.html

Slide 29: Teenage Dating Violence

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Violence Prevention. Intimate Partner Violence. Preventing Teen Dating Violence. Page last reviewed: March 12, 2019. Data from CDC’s Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Available from URL: https://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/intimatepartnerviolence/teendatingviolence/fastfact.html

Slide 30: Unwanted Sexual Contact

Basile, K. C., Smith, S. G., Breiding, M. J., Black, M.C., & Mahendra, R. (2014). Sexual Violence Surveillance: Uniform Definitions and Recommended Data Elements. National Center for Injury Prevention and Control – Division of Violence Prevention. Available from URL: https://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/pdf/sv_surveillance_definitionsl-2009-a.pdf

Slide 37: Discussing Consent and Sexual VIolence

Martino SC, Elliott MN, Corona R et al. Beyond the “Big Talk”: The Roles of Breadth and Repetition in Pre-Adolescent Communication About Sexual Topics. Pediatrics. 2008;121:e612-e618.

Module 9

Slide 2: Child Sexual Exploitation Material

Citizen’s Guide to U.S. Law on Child Pornography. Updated December 12, 2017. The United States Department of Justice. Available from URL: https://www.justice.gov/criminal-ceos/citizens-guide-us-federal-law-child-pornography

Greijer, S. & Doek, J. (2016). Terminology Guidelines for the Protection of Children from Sexual Exploitation and Sexual Abuse; Adopted by the Interagency Working Group in Luxembourg, 28 January 2016. Available from URL: http://luxembourgguidelines.org/

Slide 3: Sex Trafficking

Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, 2000.

Slide 6: Sexting

Salter, Michael (2013). “Beyond criminalisation and responsibilisation : sexting, gender and young people”. Sydney Law School. 24: 310–315. Available from URL: http://handle.uws.edu.au:8081/1959.7/527558

Slide 8: Image-Based Abuse

Image-based abuse. n.d. eSafety Commissioner. Available from URL: https://www.esafety.gov.au/image-based-abuse/

Slide 9: Online Sextortion

Image-based abuse FAQ. n.d. eSafety Commissioner. Available from URL: https://www.esafety.gov.au/image-based-abuse/faq

Module 10

Slide 5: The Power of Pleasure

Maas, M. Not down THERE! : A parent’s guide to body exploration in young children. (Blog Article, January 6, 2015). Available from URL: http://www.meganmaas.com/blog/not-down-there-a-parents-guide-to-body-exploration-in-young-children

Coleman, E. J., & Bockting, W. O. (2013). Masturbation as a means of achieving sexual health. Routledge.

Slide 6: Pleasure and Masturbation

Hogarth, H., & Ingham, R. (2009). Masturbation among young women and associations with sexual health: An exploratory study. Journal of Sex Research, 46(6), 558-567.

Maas, M. K. & McCauley, H. L. (2018, November). Porn, sex toys, and behavior: Latent classes of ten distinct methods of orgasm. Oral presentation presented at the 2018 Annual Meeting of The Society for the Scientific Study of Sexuality, Montreal, Québec.

Slide 8: Discussions of Desire

Orenstein, P. (2016). Girls & sex: Navigating the complicated new landscape. Oneworld Publications.

Orenstein, P. (2016). TED talk: What young women believe about their own sexual pleasure. Available from URL: https://youtu.be/mWA2uL8zXPI

Slide 10: Discussions of Desire

Maas, M. K., & Lefkowitz, E. S. (2015). Sexual esteem in emerging adulthood: Associations with sexual behavior, contraception use, and romantic relationships. The Journal of Sex Research, 52(7), 795-806.

Horne S, Zimmer-Gembeck MJ. Female sexual subjectivity and well-being: Comparing late adolescents with different sexual experiences. Sex Res Soc Policy. 2005;2:25-40. DOI:10.1525/srsp.2005.2.3.25

Testa, M., & Livingston, J. A. (2009). Alcohol consumption and women’s vulnerability to sexual victimization: Can reducing women’s drinking prevent rape?. Substance use & misuse, 44(9-10), 1349-1376.

Slide 12: Sexual Double Standards

Bordini, G. S., & Sperb, T. M. (2013). Sexual double standard: A review of the literature between 2001 and 2010. Sexuality & Culture, 17(4), 686-704.

Slide 15: Sexual Double Standards

Tolman, D. L., & Tolman, D. L. (2002). Dilemmas of desire. Harvard University Press.

Slide 18: Gender Roles and Pleasure

Herbenick, D., Bowling, J., Fu, T. C. J., Dodge, B., Guerra-Reyes, L., & Sanders, S. (2017). Sexual diversity in the United States: Results from a nationally representative probability sample of adult women and men. PloS one, 12(7), e0181198.

Vannier, S. A., & O’Sullivan, L. F. (2012). Who gives and who gets: Why, when, and with whom young people engage in oral sex. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 41(5), 572-582.

Slide 19: Gender Roles and Pleasure

Vasilenko, S. A., Maas, M. K., & Lefkowitz, E. S. (2015). “It felt good but weird at the same time” emerging adults’ first experiences of six different sexual behaviors. Journal of Adolescent Research, 30(5), 586-606.

Slide 20: Enacting the Unrealistic

Lawless, S. 26 July 2019. Refinery29 Web Article: Sex On Screen Is Such An Anticlimax For Women. Where Did It All Go Wrong? Available from URL: https://www.refinery29.com/en-gb/famous-sex-scenes-in-movies  

Vogels, E. A., O’Sullivan, L. F. (2018) The Relationship Among Online Sexually Explicit Material Exposure to, Desire for, and Participation in Rough Sex. Archives of Sex Behavior. DOI: 10.1007/s10508-018-1290-8

Slide 22: Cultivating an Environment for Pleasure

Elias, A. interviewed for The Porn Factor. (Video, Dec 10, 2015). Available from URL: https://youtu.be/dnYiHufVJEk

Slide 23: What’s getting in the way?

Smith, L. Medical News Today. What you need to know about vaginismus (Web Article, February 13, 2018). Available from URL: https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/175261.php

Slide 24: Alternative Pathway

Basson, R. (2000). The female sexual response: A different model. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy, 26(1), 51-65.

Module 11

Slide 3: Unsafe Situations

Van Royen, K., Poels, K., & Vandebosch, H. (2016). Help, I Am Losing Control! Examining the Reporting of Sexual Harassment by Adolescents to Social Networking Sites. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking. 19(1). DOI: 10.1089/cyber.2015

Slide 4: Online Sexual Harassment of Young Women

Reyns, B. W., Henson, B., & Fisher, B. S. (2011). Being Pursued Online: Applying Cyberlifestyle–Routine Activities Theory to Cyberstalking Victimization. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 38(11), 1149–1169. DOI: 10.1177/0093854811421448

Bratton, T. M. (2018). #FollowMe: An investigation into the relationship between social media presence and online harassment (Order No. 10932202). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. (2115817549).

Slide 5: Online Sexual Harassment of Young Women

Reed, E., Salazar, M., Behar, A. I., Agah, N., Silverman, J. G., Minnis, A. M., Rusch, M. L. A., & Raj, A. (2019). Cyber Sexual Harassment: Prevalence and association with substance use, poor mental health, and STI history among sexually active adolescent girls, Journal of Adolescence, 75, 53-62. DOI: 10.1016/j.adolescence.2019.07.005

Slide 6: Reducing Risk

Bratton, T. M. (2018). #FollowMe: An investigation into the relationship between social media presence and online harassment (Order No. 10932202). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. (2115817549).

Slide 9: Strangers, Acquaintances, Trusted Adult, or Friend: A Trusted Adult

Solter, A. Predators: Predators: Pedophiles, Rapists, and Other Sex Offenders : Who They Are, How They Operate, and How We Can Protect Ourselves and Our Children. Published March 31st 2004 by Basic Books (first published 2003). ISBN: 0465071732

Slide 17:  The “X-Plan” Strategy

Fulks, B. X-Plan: Giving your kids a way out (#xplan). (Blog, 23 February, 2017). Available from URL: https://bertfulks.com/2017/02/23/x-plan-giving-your-kids-a-way-out-xplan/

Slide 27: Waiting To Give Your Teen A Smartphone

Graber, D. Raising Humans in a Digital World: Helping Kids Build a Healthy Relationship with Technology. Publisher: AMACOM; Special edition (January 15, 2019), ISBN-13: 978-0814439791

Felt, L. J., & Robb, M. B., (2016). Technology addiction: Concern, controversy, and finding balance.

San Francisco, CA: Common Sense Media, p. 25. Available from URL: https://www.commonsensemedia.org/sites/default/files/uploads/research/csm_2016_technology_addiction_research_brief_0.pdf

Module 12

Slide 2: Varying Responses

Martino S. C., Elliott M. N., Corona R., et al. Beyond the “Big Talk”: The Roles of Breadth and Repetition in Pre-Adolescent Communication About Sexual Topics. Pediatrics. 2008;121:e612-e618

Boniel-Nissim, M., Efrati, Y. & Dolev-Cohen, M. (2019). Parental Mediation Regarding Children’s Pornography Exposure: The Role of Parenting Style, Protection Motivation and Gender. The Journal of Sex Research, 00(00), 1–10, 2019. DOI: 10.1080/00224499.2019.1590795

Enrichment 1 Research

Click through to find more research relating to the impacts of pornography.

Section 1

Slide 2: Similar Male and Female Brain Changes

Lim, M.S.C.; Agius, P.A.; Carrotte, E.R.; Vella, A.M.; Hellard, M.E.; (2017). Young Australians’ use of pornography and associations with sexual risk behaviours; Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health; 41(4): 438-443. DOI: 10.1111/1753-6405.12678

Sprout, S. (Online) May 31, 2018. What is Porn-Induced Impotence in Women (PIIW)? Available from URL: http://www.stacisprout.com/what-is-piiw/

Slide 4: How Many Young People Are Affected By Compulsive Porn Use?

Pizzol, D., Bertoldo, A., Foresta, C. (2016). Adolescents and web porn: a new era of sexuality. International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health. May 1, 2016; 28(2):169-73. DOI: 10.1515/ijamh-2015-0003.

Slide 5: How Many Young People Are Affected By Compulsive Porn Use?

Donevan, M., and Mattebo, M. (2017). The relationship between frequent pornography consumption, behaviours, and sexual preoccupancy among male adolescents in Sweden. Journal of Sexual & Reproductive Healthcare. June 2017. 12:82-87. DOI: 10.1016/j.srhc.2017.03.002

Giordano, A. L., and Cashwell, C. S. (2017). Cybersex Addiction Among College Students: A Prevalence Study. Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity: The Journal of Treatment & Prevention. March 28, 2017; 24(1-2). DOI: 10.1080/10720162.2017.1287612

Slide 6: How Many Young People Are Affected By Compulsive Porn Use?

Lim, M.S.C.; Agius, P.A.; Carrotte, E.R.; Vella, A.M.; Hellard, M.E.; (2017). Young Australians’ use of pornography and associations with sexual risk behaviours; Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health; 41(4): 438-443. DOI: 10.1111/1753-6405.12678

Sprout, S. (Online) May 31, 2018. What is Porn-Induced Impotence in Women (PIIW)? Available from URL: http://www.stacisprout.com/what-is-piiw/

Slide 9: Much Stronger “Go Get It!” Signals

Wickens, J. R., Horvitz, J. C., Costa, R. M., and Killcross, S. (2007). Dopaminergic Mechanisms in Actions and Habits. Journal of Neuroscience 1 August 2007, 27 (31) 8181-8183; DOI: https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1671-07.2007

Medical Xpress (online). January 26, 2016. Teen brains over-process rewards, suggesting root of risky behavior, mental ills. University of Pittsburgh. Available from URL: https://medicalxpress.com/news/2011-01-teen-brains-over-process-rewards-root.html

McCutcheon, J.E., Conrad KL, Carr SB, Ford KA, McGehee DS, Marinelli M. (2012). Dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area fire faster in adolescent rats than in adults. Journal of Neurophysiology. 2012 Sep;108(6):1620-30. DOI: 10.1152/jn.00077.2012

Slide 10: Much Stronger “Go Get It!” Signals

Science Daily (online). August 27, 2006. Pure Novelty Spurs the Brain. Cell Press. Available from URL: https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2006/08/060826180547.htm

Chambers, A. R., Taylor, J. R., and Potenza, M. N. (2010). Developmental Neurocircuitry of Motivation in Adolescence: A Critical Period of Addiction Vulnerability. The American Journal of Psychiatry. 2003 Jun; 160(6): 1041–1052. DOI: 10.1176/appi.ajp.160.6.1041

Slide 11:Decreased Sensitivity To Aversion

New York Times (online). April 30, 2018. Parenting the Fortnite Addict. Damour, L. Available from URL: https://www.nytimes.com/2018/04/30/well/family/parenting-the-fortnite-addict.html

Doremus-Fitzwater, T. L., Varlinskaya, E. I., Spear, L. P. (2010) Motivational systems in adolescence: possible implications for age differences in substance abuse and other risk-taking behaviors. Journal of Brain and Cognition. 2010 Feb;72(1):114-23. DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2009.08.008

Slide 14: Weaker “Stop!” Signal

Galvan, A., Hare, T.A., Parra, C.E., Penn, J., Voss, H., Glover, G., and Casey, B. J. (2006). Earlier Development of the Accumbens Relative to Orbitofrontal Cortex Might Underlie Risk-Taking Behavior in Adolescents. Journal of Neuroscience 21 June 2006, 26 (25) 6885-6892; DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1062-06.2006

Slide 15: Weaker “Stop!” Signal

Somerville, L. H., Hare, T., and Casey, B. J. (2011). Frontostriatal Maturation Predicts Cognitive Control Failure to Appetitive Cues in Adolescents. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience. 2011 Sept; 23(9): 2123-2134. DOI: 10.1162/jocn.2010.21572

Slide 16:Extensive Pruning Throughout Adolescence

Crews, F., He, J., and Hodge, C. (2012). Adolescent cortical development: a critical period of vulnerability for addiction. Journal of Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior. 2007 Feb;86(2):189-99. DOI: 10.1016/j.pbb.2006.12.001

Slide 17:Report of A Neuroscientist

Jensen, F.E.; Ellis Nutt, A. (2015) The Teenage Brain: A neuroscientist’s survival guide to raising adolescents and young adults (p 51). HarperCollins Publishers. Kindle Edition.

Slide 18: Formation of Neural Connections

Frontline (online). (n.d.) Interview with Jay Giedd. Available from URL: https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/teenbrain/interviews/giedd.html

Slide 19:Formation of Neural Connections

Jensen, F.E.; Ellis Nutt, A. (2015) The Teenage Brain: A neuroscientist’s survival guide to raising adolescents and young adults (p 51). HarperCollins Publishers. Kindle Edition.

Slide 20: Porn Consumption and Sexual Conditioning

Owens, E., Behun, R., Manning, J., & Reid, R. (2012). The Impact of Internet Pornography on Adolescents: A Review of the Research. Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity, 19(1-2), 99–122. https://doi.org/10.1080/10720162.2012.660431

Slide 21:Pornography Can Trigger Paraphilic Disorders

Pizzol, D., Bertoldo, A., & Foresta, C. (2016). Adolescents and web porn: a new era of sexuality. International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health, 28(2), 169–173. https://doi.org/10.1515/ijamh-2015-0003

ICD-11 (Online) (Last updated, June 2013). Paraphilic disorders. International Classifications of Diseases. Available from URL: https://icd.who.int/dev11/l-m/en#/http%3a%2f%2fid.who.int%2ficd%2fentity%2f2110604642

Slide 22: Pornography As A Potential Health Problem In Terms of Addiction, Paraphilia & Sexual Disorders

Park, B. Y., Wilson, G., Berger, J., Christman, M., Reina, B., Bishop, F., Klam, W. P., & Doan, A. P. (2016). Is Internet Pornography Causing Sexual Dysfunctions? A Review with Clinical Reports. Behavioral sciences (Basel, Switzerland), 6(3), 17. DOI: 10.3390/bs6030017

Slide 24:

Maltz, W. (1995). Originally published as “The Maltz Hierarchy of Sexual Interaction”; Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity, Volume 2, Number 1, 1995. Available from URL: http://healthysex.com/self-help-articles/the-maltz-hierarchy-of-sexual-interaction/

Slide 26: Porn’s Effect on Mood

Your Brain on Porn (n.d.) Rebooting/Porn Use FAQs What are the symptoms of excessive Internet porn use? Available from URL: https://www.yourbrainonporn.com/rebooting-porn-use-faqs/what-are-the-symptoms-of-excessive-internet-porn-use/

Slide 27: Teen’s Experiences With Real Sex

Doremus-Fitzwater, T., Varlinskaya, E., & Spear, L. (2010). Motivational systems in adolescence: Possible implications for age differences in substance abuse and other risk-taking behaviors. Brain and Cognition, 72(1), 114–123. DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2009.08.008

University of Alberta. (2007, February 25). One in Three Boys Heavy Porn Users, Study Shows. ScienceDaily. Available from URL: www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/02/070223142813.htm

Slide 29: Porn = Unnaturally Intense Stimuli

ICD-11 for Mortality and Morbidity Statistics (Version: 04 / 2019). 6C72 Compulsive sexual behaviour disorder. Impulse control disorders. International Classifications of Diseases. Available from URL: https://icd.who.int/browse11/l-m/en#/http%3a%2f%2fid.who.int%2ficd%2fentity%2f1630268048

Slide 38: A Percentage of Porn Consumers Are Likely To Act Out Porn Scenes

Wright, P. J., Tokunaga, R. S. & Kraus, A. (2016). A MetaAnalysis of Pornography Consumption and Actual Acts of Sexual Aggression in General Population Studies. Journal of Communication, 66: 183-205. DOI:10.1111/jcom.12201

Ybarra, M. L., Mitchell, K. J., Hamburger, M., Diener-West, M., & Leaf, P. (2011). X-rated material and perpetration of sexually aggressive behavior among children and adolescents: Is there a link? Aggressive Behavior, 37(1), 1-18. DOI: 10.1002/ab.20367

Section 2

Slide 1: How Porn Shapes Tastes And Impacts Mental Health

Your Brain on Porn (online) (n.d.) Studies linking porn use or porn/sex addiction to sexual dysfunctions, lower arousal, and lower sexual & relationship satisfaction. Available from URL: https://www.yourbrainonporn.com/relevant-research-and-articles-about-the-studies/porn-use-sex-addiction-studies/studies-linking-porn-use-or-porn-sex-addiction-to-sexual-dysfunctions-lower-arousal-and-lower-sexual-relationship-satisfaction/

Slide 2: Pornography And Socialization

NoFap (online) (n.d.). Rebooting from Porn Addiction. Available from URL: https://www.nofap.com/rebooting/

Slide 5: Impact Of Porn And Addiction Through Three Areas Of Focus

Wéry, A., & Billieux, J. (2016). Online sexual activities: An exploratory study of problematic and non-problematic usage patterns in a sample of men. Computers in Human Behavior, 56(C), 257–266. DOI: 10.1016/j.chb.2015.11.046

Porn Study Critiques (February 24, 2017). Studies Report Escalation and Habituation (Tolerance), and Withdrawal in Porn Users. Available from URL: https://pornstudycritiques.com/studies-find-escalation-and-habituation-in-porn-users/

Slide 6: Escalating To Porn Material That Used To Be Uninteresting Or A Turnoff

Dines, G. (2010) Pornland: How Porn Has Hijacked our Sexuality. Beacon Press. Boston.

Slide 7: Escalation

Ridley, J. (online) (2018) My decades-long porn addiction nearly destroyed my love life. January 6, 2018. News.com.au. Available from URL: https://nypost.com/2018/01/06/my-decades-long-porn-addiction-nearly-destroyed-my-love-life/

Slide 9: Escalation

Reddit r/NoFap (online) (n.d.) Fapping has made me almost asexual. Available from URL: https://www.reddit.com/r/NoFap/comments/5gr53s/fapping_has_made_me_almost_asexual/

Slide 10: Escalation

Max Planck Institute for Human Development (2014). Viewers of pornography have a smaller reward system. Available from URL: https://www.mpib-berlin.mpg.de/en/media/2014/06/viewers-of-pornography-have-a-smaller-reward-system

Slide 11: Escalation

Pizzol, D., Bertoldo, A., & Foresta, C. (2016). Adolescents and web porn: a new era of sexuality. International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health, 28(2), 169–173. https://doi.org/10.1515/ijamh-2015-0003

Slide 13: Youth Reporting Difficulty With Arousal And Sustaining Interest

Porn Study Critiques (July 19, 2017). Studies finding links between porn use and poorer mental and emotional health. Available from URL: https://pornstudycritiques.com/studies-linking-porn-use-to-poorer-mental-emotional-health-poorer-cognitive-outcomes/

Beyens, I., Vandenbosch, L., & Eggermont, S. (2015). Early Adolescent Boys’ Exposure to Internet Pornography: Relationships to Pubertal Timing, Sensation Seeking, and Academic Performance. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 35(8), 1045–1068. DOI: 10.1177/0272431614548069

Slide 14: Arousal Difficulty

Pacha, T. (Video) (2016) YouTube, Part #1: Porn Induced Erectile Dysfunction (PIED): problem and scope. Available from URL:  https://youtu.be/M9xqIIWkP8MSlide 15: Arousal Difficulty 

NoFap (n.d.). https://www.nofap.com/

Slide 18: Arousal Difficulty

Pulvers, R. (April 2012). The Japan Times. Reversing Japan’s rising sex aversion may depend on a rebirth of hope. Available from URL: https://www.japantimes.co.jp/opinion/2012/04/29/commentary/reversing-japans-rising-sex-aversion-may-depend-on-a-rebirth-of-hope/#.XFJWo1wzaUm

Davis, A., Carrotte, E., Hellard, M., Temple-Smith, M., & Lim, M. (2017). P4.11 “I think it has been a negative influence in many ways but at the same time i can’t stop using it”: self-identified problematic pornography use among a sample of young Australians. Sexually Transmitted Infections, 93(Suppl 2). DOI: 10.1136/sextrans-2017-053264.508

Section 3

Slide 4: Leaving Porn Behind Often Leads To Surprising Improvements

Wilson, G. (Video) (2012) YouTube, The great porn experiment, TEDx Glasgow. Available from URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wSF82AwSDiU&feature=youtu.be

Slide 10: One Self-Report Of Withdrawal From Porn Use

Bőthe, B., Tóth-Király, I., Zsila, Á., Griffiths, M., Demetrovics, Z., & Orosz, G. (2018). The Development of the Problematic Pornography Consumption Scale (PPCS). The Journal of Sex Research, 55(3), 395–406. DOI: 10.1080/00224499.2017.1291798

NoFap (n.d.). Let’s make a list of withdrawal symptoms. Retrieved from https://www.nofap.com/forum/index.php?threads%2Flets-make-a-list-of-withdrawal-symptoms.74415%2F

Andreassen, C., Pallesen, S., Griffiths, M., Torsheim, T., & Sinha, R. (2018). The Development and Validation of the Bergen-Yale Sex Addiction Scale with a Large National Sample. (Report). Frontiers in Psychology, 9, 144. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00144